December 4, 2018

ICAI Syllabus Old Course

ICAI Syllabus OLD Course

[Syllabus specified by the Council under Regulation 31 (ii) of the Chartered Accountants Regulations, 1988]

Curriculum for Final Course

Group I

Paper 1: Financial Reporting (100 Marks)

Paper 2: Strategic Financial Management (100 Marks)

Paper 3: Advanced Auditing and Professional Ethics (100 Marks)

Paper 4: Corporate and Allied Laws (100 Marks)

Section A: Company Law (70 Marks)

Section B: Allied Laws (30 Marks)

Group II

Paper 5: Advanced Management Accounting (100 Marks)

Paper 6: Information Systems Control and Audit (100 Marks)

Paper 7: Direct Tax Laws (100 Marks)

Paper 8: Indirect Tax Laws (100 Marks)

Part-I: Goods and Services Tax (75 Marks)

Part-II: Customs & Foreign Trade Policy (25 Marks)

 GROUP – I

PAPER 1: FINANCIAL REPORTING

(One paper – Three hours – 100 marks)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge

Contents:

  1. Accounting Standards and Guidance Notes on various accounting aspects issued by the ICAI and

their applications.

  1. Introduction of Indian Accounting Standards (Ind AS); Comparative study of ASs vis-a-vis Ind

ASs; Carve outs/ins in Ind ASs vis-à-vis International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRSs).

  1. Corporate Financial Reporting – Issues and problems with special reference to published financial

statements.

  1. Accounting for Corporate Restructuring (including inter-company holdings).
  2. Consolidated Financial Statements of Group Companies Concept of a Group, purposes of consolidated financial statements, minority interest, Goodwill, Consolidation procedures – Minority interests, Goodwill, Treatment of pre-acquisition and post-acquisition profit. Consolidation with two or more subsidiaries, consolidation with foreign subsidiaries.

Consolidated profit and loss account, balance sheet and cash flow statement. Treatment of investment in associates in consolidated financial statements.Treatment of investments in joint ventures in consolidated financial statements.

  1. Accounting and reporting of financial instruments Meaning, recognition, derecognition and offset, compound financial instruments Measurement of financial instruments Hedge accounting Disclosures
  2. Share-based payments Meaning, Equity-settled transactions, Transaction with employees and non- employees

Determination of fair value of equity instruments Vesting conditions Modification, cancellation and settlement Disclosures

  1. Financial Reporting by Mutual funds, Non-banking finance companies, Merchant bankers, Stock and commodity market intermediaries.
  1. Valuation

(a) Concept of Valuation

(b) Valuation of Tangible Fixed Assets

(c) Valuation of Intangibles including brand valuation and valuation of goodwill

(d) Valuation of liabilities

(e) Valuation of Shares

(f) Valuation of Business

  1. Developments in Financial Reporting

(a) Value Added Statement

(b) Economic Value Added, Market Value Added, Shareholders’ Value Added

(c) Human Resource Reporting

Note– If either old Accounting Standards (ASs), Guidance Notes (GNs), Announcements and Limited Revisions to ASs are withdrawn or new ASs, GNs, Announcements, and Limited Revisions to AS are issued by the Institute of Chartered Accountants of India in place of existing ASs, GNs, Announcements and Limited Revisions to AS, the syllabus will accordingly exclude / include such new developments in the place of the existing ones with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.

PAPER 2: STRATEGIC FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT

(One paper – Three hours – 100 marks)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge

Contents:

  1. Financial Policy and Corporate Strategy

Strategic decision-making framework

Interface of Financial Policy and strategic management

Balancing financial goals vis-à-vis sustainable growth.

  1. Project Planning and Capital Budgeting

Feasibility study

Cash flow Projections – Impact of taxation, depreciation, inflation and working capital

Capital Budgeting Decisions – Certainty Equivalent approach, Evaluation of Risky InvestmentProposals, Risk and Return analysis, Simulation and decision tree analysis, Sensitivity analysis Capital Rationing, Adjusted Net Present Value, Replacement decisions, Application of Real Options in capital budgeting, Impact of inflation on capital budgeting decisions

Preparation of Project Report Social cost-benefit analysis.

  1. Leasing decision including cross-border leasing
  2. Dividend Decisions

Dividend theories, Determinants of dividend policies.

  1. (a) Indian Capital Market including role of various primary and secondary market

institutions

(b) Capital Market Instruments

Financial derivatives – stock futures, stock options, index futures, index options Option valuation techniques: Binomial model, Black Scholes Option Pricing Model, Greeks – Delta, Gamma, Theta, Rho and Vega Pricing of Futures – Cost of carry model Embedded derivatives

(c) Commodity derivatives

(d) OTC derivatives -Swaps, Swaptions, Forward Rate Agreements (FRAs), Caps, Floors, and Collors.

  1. Security Analysis

Fundamental analysis – Economic analysis, Industry analysis and Company Analysis Bond valuation, Price Yield relationship, Bond Price forecasting – application of duration and convexity, Yield curve strategies Technical Analysis – market cycle model and basic trend identification, different types of charting, support and resistance, price patterns, moving averages, Bollinger Bands, momentum analysis.

  1. Portfolio Theory and Asset Pricing

Efficient Market Theory – Random walk theory; Markowitz model of risk-return optimization

Capital Asset Pricing Model (CAPM)

Arbitrage Pricing Theory (APT)

Sharpe Index Model

Portfolio Management – Formulation, Monitoring, and Evaluation

Equity Style Management

Principles and Management of Hedge Funds

International Portfolio Management.

  1. Financial Services in India

Investment Banking Retail Banking

On-Line Share Trading

Depository Service.

  1. (a) Mutual Funds: Regulatory framework, formulation, monitoring and evaluation of various schemes of Mutual funds, Money market mutual funds.

(b) Exchange Traded Funds.

  1. Money Market operations
  2. (a) Foreign Direct Investment, Foreign Institutional Investment.

(b) International Financial Management

Raising of capital abroad – American Depository Receipts, Global Depository Receipts, External Commercial Borrowings and Foreign Currency Convertible Bonds International Capital Budgeting International Working Capital Management.

  1. Foreign Exchange Exposure and Risk Management

Exchange rate determination, Exchange rate forecasting

Foreign currency market

Foreign exchange derivatives – Forward, futures, options, and swaps

Management of transaction, translation and economic exposures

Hedging currency risk.

  1. Mergers, Acquisitions, and Restructuring

Meaning of mergers and acquisition, categories, purposes

Process of mergers and acquisition – Identification and valuation of the target, acquisition through negotiation, due diligence, post-merger integration

Legal and regulatory requirements

Merger and Acquisition agreement

Reverse merger

Potential adverse competitive effects of mergers

Corporate Takeovers: Motivations, Co-insurance effect, Cross-border takeovers, Forms of takeovers, Takeover Defenses

Going Private and Other Control Transactions: Leveraged Buyouts (LBOs), Management Buyouts (MBOs), Spin-Offs and Asset Divestitures

Corporate Restructuring: Refinancing and rescue financing, reorganizations of debtors and creditors, Sale of assets, targeted stock offerings, downsizing and layoff programmes, negotiated wage give-backs, employee buyouts.

 PAPER 3: ADVANCED AUDITING AND PROFESSIONAL ETHICS

(One Paper- Three hours – 100 marks)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge

Contents:

  1. Auditing Standards, Statements, and Guidance Notes

Auditing and Assurance Standards (AASs); Statements and Guidance Notes on Auditing issued by the ICAI; Significant differences between Auditing and Assurance Standards and International Standards on Auditing.

  1. Audit strategy, planning, and programming

Planning the flow of audit work; audit strategy, planning programme, and importance of supervision: review of audit notes and working papers; drafting of reports; principal’s ultimate responsibility; extent of delegation; control over quality of audit work; reliance on the work of other auditor, internal auditor or an expert.

3. Risk Assessment and Internal Control

Evaluation of internal control procedures; techniques including a questionnaire, flowchart; internal audit and external audit, coordination between the two.

  1. Audit under computerized information system (CIS) environment

Special aspects of CIS Audit Environment, need for review of internal control especially procedure controls and facility controls. Approach to audit in CIS Environment, use of computers for internal and management audit purposes: audit tools, test packs, computerized audit programmes; Special Aspects in Audit of E-Commerce Transaction.

  1. Special audit techniques

(a) Selective verification; a statistical sampling: Special audit procedures; physical verification of assets, direct confirmation of debtors and creditors

(b) Analytical review procedures

(c) Risk-based auditing.

  1. Audit of limited companies

Relevant Provisions under the Companies Act, 2013 relating to Audit and Auditors and Rules made thereunder; Audit of branches: joint audits; Dividends and divisible profits – financial, legal, and policy considerations.

  1. Rights, duties, and liabilities of auditors; third party liability.
  2. Audit reports; Qualifications, notes on accounts, a distinction between notes and qualifications, detailed observations by the statutory auditor to the management vis-a-vis obligations of reporting to the members.
  1. Audit Committee and Corporate Governance
  2. Provisions under the Companies Act, 2013 in respect of Accounts of Companies and Rules made thereunder. Audit of Consolidated Financial Statements, Audit Reports and Certificates for Special Purpose engagements; Certificates under the Payment of Bonus Act, import/export control authorities, etc.; Specific services to non-audit clients; Certificate on Corporate Governance.
  3. Special features of audit of banks, insurance companies, co-operative societies and non-banking financial companies.
  4. Audit under Fiscal Laws, viz, Direct and Indirect Tax Laws.
  5. Cost audit
  6. Special audit assignments like audit of bank borrowers, audit of stock and commodity exchange intermediaries and depositories; inspection of special entities like banks, financial institutions, mutual funds, stock brokers.
  7. Special features in audit of public sector companies. Directions of Comptroller and Auditor General of India to statutory auditors; Concepts of propriety and efficiency audit.
  8. Internal audit, management and operational audit Nature and purpose, organisation, audit programme, behavioural problems; Internal Audit Standards issued by the ICAI; Specific areas of management and operational audit involving review of internal control, purchasing operations, manufacturing operations, selling and distribution, personnel policies, systems and procedures. Aspects relating to concurrent audit.
  9. Investigation and Due Diligence.
  10. Concept of peer review
  11. Salient features of Sarbanes – Oxley Act, 2002 with special reference to reporting on internal control.
  12. Professional Ethics

Code of Ethics with special reference to the relevant provisions of The Chartered Accountants Act, 1949 and the Regulations the reunder.

Note:

(i) The provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 which are still in force would form part of the syllabus till the time their corresponding or new provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 are enforced.

(ii) If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations, the syllabus would include the corresponding provisions of such new legislations with effect from a date notified by the Institute.

 PAPER – 4: CORPORATE AND ALLIED LAWS

(One paper – Three hours – 100 marks)

SECTION A: COMPANY LAW & INSOLVENCY AND BANKRUPTCY CODE, 2016 (70 MARKS)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge

Contents:

  1. The Companies Act, 2013 and Rules framed thereunder in its entirety with specific reference to

(a) Declaration and payment of Dividend

(b) Accounts and audit

(c) Appointment and Qualifications of Directors

(d) Appointment and remuneration of Managerial Personnel

(e) Meetings of Board and its powers

(f) Inspection, Inquiry and Investigation

(g) Compromises, Arrangements and Amalgamations

(h) Prevention of Oppression and Mismanagement

(i) Revival and Rehabilitation of Sick Companies

(j) Winding Up

(k) Producer Companies

(l) Companies incorporated outside India

(m) Offences and Penalties

(n) E-governance

(o) National Company Law Tribunal and Appellate Tribunal

(p) Special Courts

(q) Miscellaneous Provisions

  1. Corporate Secretarial Practice–Drafting of Resolution, Minutes, Notices and Reports
  2. Insolvency and Bankruptcy Code, 2016- Covering Important Definitions, Corporate Insolvency Resolution Process, and Liquidation Process (10 Marks)

Note: The provisions of the Companies Act, 1956 which are still in force would form part of the syllabus till the time their corresponding or new provisions of the Companies Act, 2013 are enforced.

SECTION B: ALLIED LAWS (30 MARKS)

Contents:

  1. An overview of the following laws –

(a) The Securities and Exchange Board of India Act, 1992, Rules, Regulations and Guidelines

issued thereunder.

(b) Securities Contracts (Regulation) Act, 1956

(c) The Foreign Exchange Management Act, 1999

(d) The Competition Act, 2002

(e) The Banking Regulation Act, 1949, The Insurance Act, 1938. The Insurance Regulatory and Development Authority Act, 1999. The Securitisation and Reconstruction of Financial Assets and Enforcement of Security Interest Act, 2002

(f) The Prevention of Money Laundering Act, 2002

  1. Interpretation of Statutes, Deeds and Documents.

Note: If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations, the syllabus would include the corresponding provisions of such new legislations with effect from a date notified by the Institute.

ICAI Syllabus OLD Course

[Syllabus specified by the Council under Regulation 31 (ii) of the Chartered Accountants

Regulations, 1988]

Curriculum for Final Course

Group I

Paper 1: Financial Reporting (100 Marks)

Paper 2: Strategic Financial Management (100 Marks)

Paper 3: Advanced Auditing and Professional Ethics (100 Marks)

Paper 4: Corporate and Allied Laws (100 Marks)

Section A: Company Law (70 Marks)

Section B: Allied Laws (30 Marks)

Group II

Paper 5: Advanced Management Accounting (100 Marks)

Paper 6: Information Systems Control and Audit (100 Marks)

Paper 7: Direct Tax Laws (100 Marks)

Paper 8: Indirect Tax Laws (100 Marks)

Part-I: Goods and Services Tax (75 Marks)

Part-II: Customs & Foreign Trade Policy (25 Marks)

 GROUP – II

PAPER 5: ADVANCED MANAGEMENT ACCOUNTING

(One paper – Three hours – 100 marks)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced Knowledge

Objective:

To apply various management accounting techniques to all types of organizations for planning, decision making and control purposes in practical situations. To develop ability to apply quantitative techniques to business problems.

  1. Cost Management

(a) Developments in the Business Environment; Just in Time; Manufacturing Resources Planning; (MRP); Automated Manufacturing; Synchronous Manufacturing and Back Flush Systems to reflect the importance of accurate bills of material and routings; World Class Manufacturing; Total Quality Management.

(b) Activity Based Approaches to management and cost analysis

(c) Analysis of Common Costs in manufacturing and service industry

(d) Techniques for Profit Improvement, Cost Reduction, and Value Analysis

(e) Throughput Accounting

(f) Target Costing; Cost Ascertainment and Pricing of Products and Services

(g) Life Cycle Costing

(h) Shut Down and Divestment.

  1. Cost Volume Profit Analysis

(a) Relevant Cost

(b) Product Sales Pricing and Mix

(c) Limiting Factors

(d) Multiple Scarce Resource Problems

(e) Decisions about Alternatives such as Make or Buy, Selection of Products, etc.

  1. Pricing Decisions

(a) Pricing of a Finished Product

(b) Theory of Price

(c) Pricing Policy

(d) Principles of Product Pricing

(e) New Product Pricing

(f) Pricing Strategies

(g) Pricing of Services

(h) Pareto Analysis

  1. Budgets and Budgetary Control

The Budget Manual, Preparation and Monitoring Procedures, Budget Variances, Flexible Budgets, Preparation of Functional Budget for Operating and Non-Operating Functions, Cash Budgets, Capital Expenditure Budget, Master Budget, Principal Budget Factors.

  1. Standard Costing and Variance Analysis

Types of Standards and Sources of Standard Cost Information; Evolution of Standards, Continuous – Improvement; Keeping Standards Meaningful and Relevant; Variance Analysis; Disposal of Variances.

(a) Investigation and Interpretation of Variances and their Inter Relationship

(b) Behavioural Considerations.

  1. Transfer Pricing

(a) Objectives of Transfer Pricing

(b) Methods of Transfer Pricing

(c) Conflict between a Division and a Company

(d) Multi-National Transfer Pricing.

  1. Cost Management in Service Sector
  2. Uniform Costing and Inter Firm Comparison
  3. Profitability Analysis – Product Wise / Segment Wise / Customer Wise
  4. Financial Decision Modeling

(a) Linear Programming

(b) Network Analysis – PERT/CPM, Resource Allocation and Resource Leveling.

(c) Transportation Problems

(d) Assignment Problems

(e) Simulation

(f) Learning Curve Theory

(g) Time Series Forecasting*

(h) Sampling and Test of Hypothesis*

* The council has decided to exclude these topics effective from May, 2011 examination onwards.

 PAPER 6: INFORMATION SYSTEMS CONTROL AND AUDIT

(One Paper – Three hours – 100 marks)

(Revised Syllabus – Applicable from November, 2014 Examination onwards)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced Knowledge

Objective: “To develop competencies and skill-sets in evaluation of controls and relevant evidence gathering in an IT environment using IT tools and techniques for effective and efficient performance of accounting, assurance and compliance services provided by a Chartered Accountant”.

Contents

  1. Concepts of Governance and Management of Information Systems

Governance, Risk and compliance and relationship between governance and management. Role of information technology and IS Strategy in business strategy, operations and control , business value from use of IT, business impact of IS risks different types of Information Systems Risks, IS Risk management overview, IT Compliance overview – Role and  esponsibilities of top management as regards IT-GRC. Role of Information Systems Assurance. Overview of Governance of Enterprise IT and COBIT

  1. Information Systems Concepts

Overview of information systems in IT environment and practical aspects of application of information systems in enterprise processes. Information as a key business asset and its relation to business objectives, business processes and relative importance of information systems from strategic and operational perspectives. Various types of business applications, overview of underlying IT technologies.

  1. Protection of Information Systems

Need for protection of Information systems, types of controls, IT general controls, logical access controls & application controls. Technologies and security management features, IS Security Policies, procedures, practices, standards and guidelines, IT controls and control objectives, Role of technology systems in control monitoring, segregation of duties. Impact of IT controls on Internal controls over financial reporting, cyber frauds and control failures.

  1. Business Continuity Planning and Disaster recovery planning

Assessing Business Continuity Management, Business Impact Analysis and Business Continuity Plans, Disaster recovery from perspective of going concern, Recovery Strategies

  1. Acquisition, Development and Implementation of Information Systems (SDLC)

Business process design (integrated systems, automated, and manual interfaces), Software procurement, RFP process, evaluation of IT proposals, computing ROI, Computing Cost of IT implementation and cost benefit analysis, systematic approach to SDLC and review of SDLC controls at different stages.

  1. Auditing & Information Systems

Different types of IS audit and assurance engagements. Evaluating IT dependencies for audit planning. Overview of continuous auditing. Auditing Information Systems- Approach methodology, and standards for auditing information systems. IS Audit planning, performing an IS audit, rules of digital evidence, best practices and standards for IS audit.

Reviewing General Controls, Application Controls, Application control reviews: Review of controls

at various levels/layers such as: Parameters, user creation, granting of access rights, input,

processing and output controls.

  1. Information Technology Regulatory issues

Overview of Specific section of IT Act 2008 & Rules as relevant for assurance: Electronic Contracting, digital signatures, cyber offences, etc. Need for systems audit as per various regulations such as: SEBI Clause 49 listing requirements and internal controls, systems control & audit requirements as per RBI, SEBI, IRDA. Concepts of Cyber forensics/Cyber Fraud

investigation, Overview of Information Security Standards ISO 27001, ISAE 3402/SA 402, ITIL

  1. Emerging Technology

Overview of Cloud Computing, Software as a Service, Mobile Computing & BYOD, Web 2.0 &

social media, Green IT and related security and audit issues

 PAPER – 7 : DIRECT TAX LAWS

(One paper ─ Three hours – 100 Marks)

Level of Knowledge: Advanced knowledge

Objectives:

(a) To gain advanced knowledge of the provisions of direct tax laws,

(b) To acquire the ability to apply the knowledge of the provisions of direct tax laws to various situations in actual practice.

Contents:

The Income-tax Act, 1961 and Rules thereunder

While covering the direct tax laws, students should familiarise themselves with considerations relevant to tax management. These may include tax considerations with regard to specific management decisions, foreign collaboration agreements, international taxation, amalgamations, tax incentives, personnel compensation plans, inter-relationship of taxation and accounting, with special reference to relevant accounting standards and other precautions to be observed to maximise tax relief. Further, they should have a basic understanding about the ethical considerations in tax management and compliance with taxation laws.

Note – If new legislations are enacted in place of the existing legislations relating to income tax and

wealth tax, the syllabus will accordingly include such new legislations in the place of the existing

legislations with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute.

 PAPER 8 : INDIRECT TAX LAWS

(One paper – Three hours – 100 marks)

Part-I: Goods and Services Tax (75 Marks)

Objective:

To acquire the ability to analyze and interpret the provisions of the goods and services tax law and recommend solutions to practical problems.

Contents:

  1. Goods and Services Tax (GST) Law as contained in the Central Goods and Services

Tax (CGST) Act, 2017 and Integrated Goods and Services Tax (IGST) Act, 2017

(i) Constitutional aspects

(ii) Levy and collection of CGST and IGST – Application of CGST/IGST law; Concept of

supply including composite and mixed supplies, inter-State supply, intra-State supply, supplies in territorial waters; Charge of tax; Exemption from tax; Composition levy

(iii) Place of supply

(iv) Time and Value of supply

(v) Input tax credit

(vi) Computation of GST liability

(vii) Procedures under GST – All procedures including registration, tax invoice, credit and debit notes, electronic way bill, accounts and records, returns, payment of tax including reverse charge, refund, job work

(viii) Provisions relating to electronic commerce

(ix) Liability to pay in certain cases

(x) Administration of GST; Assessment and Audit

(xi) Inspection, Search, Seizure and Arrest

(xii) Demand and Recovery

(xiii) Offences and Penalties

(xiv) Advance Ruling

(xv) Appeals and Revision

(xvi) Other provisions1

1 The entire CGST and IGST laws are included in the syllabus at the Final level. Any residuary provision under

the CGST Act, 2017 and IGST Act, 2017, not covered under any of the above specific provisions, would be

covered under “Other provisions”. Further, if any new Chapter is included in the CGST Act, 2017 and IGST Act,

2017, the syllabus will accordingly include the provisions relating thereto.

 Part-II: Customs & FTP (25 Marks)

Objectives:

(a) To develop an understanding of the customs laws and acquire the ability to analyze and interpret the provisions of such laws.

(b) To develop an understanding of the basic concepts of foreign trade policy to the extent relevant to indirect tax laws, and acquire the ability to analyse such concepts.

Contents:

  1. Customs Law as contained in the Customs Act, 1962 and the Customs Tariff Act,

1975

(i) Introduction to customs law including Constitutional aspects

(ii) Levy of and exemptions from customs duties – All provisions including application

of customs law, taxable event, charge of customs duty, exceptions to levy of customs

duty, exemption from custom duty

(iii) Types of customs duties

(iv) Classification and valuation of imported and export goods

(v) Officers of Customs; Appointment of customs ports, airports etc.

(vi) Import and Export Procedures – All import and export procedures including special procedures relating to baggage, goods imported or exported by post, stores

(vii) Provisions relating to coastal goods and vessels carrying coastal goods

(viii) Warehousing

(ix) Drawback

(x) Demand and Recovery; Refund

(xi) Provisions relating to prohibited goods, notified goods, specified goods, illegal

importation/exportation of goods

(xii) Searches, seizure and arrest; Offences; Penalties; Confiscation and Prosecution

(xiii) Appeals and Revision; Advance Rulings; Settlement Commission

(xiv) Other provisions2

  1. Foreign Trade Policy to the extent relevant to the indirect tax laws

(i) Introduction to FTP – legislation governing FTP, salient features of an FTP, administration of FTP, contents of FTP and other related provisions

(ii) Basic concepts relating to import and export of goods

(iii) Basic concepts relating to export promotion schemes provided under FTP

2 The entire customs law is included in the syllabus at the Final level. Any residuary provision under the Customs Act, 1962 or Customs Tariff Act, 1975, not covered under any of the above specific provisions, would be covered under “Other Provisions”. Further, if any new Chapter is included in the Customs Act, 1962 or Customs Tariff Act, 1975, the syllabus will accordingly include the provisions relating thereto.

 Note – If any new legislation(s) is enacted in place of an existing legislation(s), the syllabus will accordingly include the corresponding provisions of such new legislation(s) in place of the existing legislation(s) with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute. Similarly, if any existing legislation ceases to have effect, the syllabus will accordingly exclude such legislation with effect from the date to be notified by the Institute. Students shall not be examined with reference to any particular State GST Law.

Further, the specific inclusions/exclusions in any topic covered in the syllabus will be effected every year by way of Study Guidelines, if required.

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